By Brahmrishi Shri Vishvatma Bawra Ji Maharaj
Compiled by Swami Raghavanand Parivrajak
the grace of Divine I will start from today to teach you the yoga philosophy of
Maharishi Patanjali called Paatanjal Yoga Darshana. There are numerous books on
this philosophy. Yoga - darshan is very famous and every person wants to know
the real ideology of maharishi Patanjali. Now I will explain the Yoga-Sutra's
in an easy and understandable way.
philosophy is a practical philosophy. A very little part (the last pada)
of it is theory or philosophy. The rest is related with practical advice. Maharishi
Patanjali philosophised this yoga ideology in aphorisms and divided it in 4
chapters. The four chapters are: 1.Samadhi paad 2.Saadhan Paad 3.Vibhuti Paad
4.Kaivalya Paad. Maharishi Patanjali taught us that by practising this yoga one
can achieve the highest goal of life, which is called Kaiwalyam (oneness with
Supreme Truth). Where there is no duality that is called kaiwalyam. This
ideology was differently explained by Jain and Boudh-Acharyas: they
explained this with the word "kewali "which has a different
meaning. The practical aspect of our Vedic ideology is called Yoga philosophy
and philosophical background of yoga is called Samkhya philosophy. Samkhya and
yoga both are co-related. You will find this ideology in the Upanishads and
other philosophical treatises.
one can achieve the ultimate goal? Every philosopher wrote that Yoga is the
method to achieve the ultimate Goal of life. In the Brahma-Sutras from
Maharishi Badarayana, the Nyay-Darshan from Gautam Muni;the Vaisheshik-Darshan from Kannaad Muni and in the Samkhya
Darshan from Kapil Muni also you will find the same system. Without this
yoga - process nobody will be able to realize that Ultimate Truth. Yoga is
essential for every system of philosophy. Also in the Upanishads and many hymns
of the Veda's we find that by yoga one can realize that Ultimate Truth. In Atharwavedawe find many ideas which completely explain the system of our physical
structure: Astchakraa nav dvara devaanaam puryayodhya. We also read thatAtharwa Rishi is joining his head and heart to each other while doing
breathing exercises (pranayam), and is realizing the Ultimate Truth.
This means this system of yoga came from Vedas.
is a question: Who is the first acharya of Yoga philosophy? Patanjali is not
the first acharya, because before Patanjali there were many seers, who have
described this yoga - philosophy. Many Upanishads are related with the
description of yoga. Yamraj also is explaining it to Nachiketa
(Kathopnishad). Bhagwaan Dattatreya explained this to his disciples and
other seers. In the Mahabharata (shaanti parwa), maharishi Washisthais teaching this yoga to King Janak, and lord Kapila and
maharishi Bharadwaaj also were teaching this philosophy to others which
means that yoga was there before Patanjali. In the Mahabharata Vyasdevquoted maharishi Dewal, Ashit, Jaivishati and many other Rishis as great
yogis, there life and ideology, but there is nothing mentioned about Patanjali.
Maharishi Vyasdev talked about yoga philosophy, but not on behalf of
maharishi Patanjali. So I think that Patanjali is not before Mahabharata, but
after that. Some writers wrote that there are two or three Patanjalies. These
authors were in confusion, which was created by western people, because they
were confused about Indian History. Patanjali was a great seer; there is no
doubt, but he was not in those days when the Mahabharata was written. The Chaandogya-Upnishadwas written before the Mahabharata. We read in the Chaandogya Upanishad that
Lord Krishna "Dewki -putrah Krishnah" was studying the
philosophy of karmyoga from the seer Maharishi Angiras, but I have never
read about Patanjali in it. There are more than 222 Upanishads available;
luckily I have read all of them, but I have not found Patanjali mentioned in
any of these Upanishads, which means that Patanjali was not there in those days
when these books were written. In my opinion Patanjali is one who wrote Patanjal-
Mahaabhaashye and this Yoga-Philosophy. He also wrote the Ayurveda
Samhita. In the Bhavishya-puran we find something about Maharishi
Patanjali. He was born in Uttar Pradesh and he was a very learned scholar, he
did great penance in Omkareshwar and then came to Kashi (Banaras). He was a
very learned and proud scholar so he challenged the great seer Katyayan (who
wrote "Vritti "on the Panineey–Vyaakaran (grammer).
Both had a discussion (shaastraarth) about Vyaakaran and Patanjali was defeated
by Katyayan. After that he came to "Vindhyaachal" and worshipped
Mother- Goddess there. After his hard penance Mother Goddess appeared in front
of him and gave him the boon to gain true knowledge and victory. After getting
Mothers boon he once again came to Varanasi(Benares) and challenged Katyayan,
defeated him and wrote the process of Yoga in the Patanjal-Yoga Darshan. The
commentary by Patanjali on the Sutra's of Panini is called Patanjal Mahabhaasya
Time of Patanjali is 300 B.C; Patanjali overpowered Brihadbal the son of
king Ashoka who lived in 300B.C.
the Mahabharata we are reading that Hiranyagarbha was the Acharya of
yoga-philosophy and Kapil was the acharya of Samkhya philosophy."Naahi
Samkhya samam gyaanam, naahi yoga samam balam" , so Hiranyagarbha was
the enunciator of this Yoga-philosophy . According to the Mahabharata
Hiranyagarbha was an incarnation of God himself. Lord Krishna told in the 4th
chapter of the Bhagwadgita: Imam wiewaswate yogam prooktwaan aham awyayam .
Wiewaswaan manawepraah manuriekshwaakawe abrawiet (gita 4-1). Hiranyagarbha
was father of Daksha and Daksha was father of Aditi. Vivaswaanwas son of Aditi and grandson of Daksha. Hiranyagarbha was incarnation of God
and he gave this knowledge to mankind. Patanjali is not the enunciator of this
great philosophy, he philosophised and collected this ideology which was
written in numerous books. We did not find any written documents by
Hiranyagarbha . In the Mahabharata we are reading about Hiranyagarbha, and we
are also reading that he gave this great philosophy to mankind, but we did not
find any written documents by Hiranyagarbha. By the grace of Divine I will
start to teach you the yoga philosophy of Maharishi Patanjali.
1 : Samadhi Paad = ath yogaanushaasanam = Ath yogaanushaashanammeans that: he is not " shaastaa " , enunciator . He is "anushashataa",the propagator of that philosophy. That's why he wrote anushaashanam
(propagator ) . Shasanam means commanding. But he is follower /propagator. Here
it means that he has written other subjects too. Ath means: now again.
It means he wrote other literatures before. He wrote two very famous works in
Sanskrit literature. One is Paatanjal-Mahaabhaashye (commentary on Panini's
Grammar) and Charak-Samhita (Most ancient book on Ayurveda). Some scholars say
that Charak is another name of Patanjali. It is told that he gave three works
related with three subjects: For the body he gave Ayurveda, for our speech he
gave grammar, for the mind he gave yoga-philosophy. Ath Yogaanushaasanam. Now I
am starting the explanation of the method of yoga. Explain, because that
philosophy exists from the beginning which he wrote in aphorisms (Sutra's). Be
aware about another thing. Yoga is not a philosophy, but it is a practical
process/method. So, here ath yoganushashanam, now I am going to explain
the method of yoga .Yoga is a method
2 : Samadhi Paad = Yogaschitta Vritti Nirodha = Yogaschittvritti
nirodha ,this is a method ,by which one can control the modes of mind .
Yoga is the method of controlling the modes of mind. Yoga in itself is
controlling the modes of mind. In our Indian system there is an idea that in
the beginning of any treatise, the author /acharya gives his idea in four
aphorisms. Patanjali also gave his idea in 4 aphorisms: 1. Ath yoganushashanam.
(now again I am propagating the method of Yoga) 2. Yogaschitawrittinirodha(controlling
the modes of mind ). Then the result will be; 3. Tadaa drashtu swaroope
awasthaanam, then seer will be established in his own self. It means that
the seer is not in the real self. Where is the seer then? He said: 4. Vritti
saaroopyamitaratra. He becomes identified with the modes of mind from the outer
world, what is the cause of suffering. Infatuation is the cause of being one
with the modes of mind. Modification of the impulses of the mind will establish
himself in his true self, and he will be free from all kinds of sufferings .To
modify the impulses and modes of mind is called Yoga. This is the uniqueness of
this process. When the seer becomes one with the modes of mind, then he will be
pray of 5 kinds of suffering. But when he adopts the yoga -method, then he
becomes free from infatuation.
Vritti Nirodha. There is a citta. What is citta? What is vritti?.It maybe not
easy to understand what is meant by this, but further on it will be explained
more what will make it easier to grasp. Citta is the first projection of nature
.It has two forms: Cosmic citta and Individual citta. Individual Citta is the
part of the Cosmic Citta .Cosmic Citta is called the citta of God and
individual Citta is called the citta of Soul. So cosmic citta is the cause of
individual citta. In the Upanishad we find this concept as fire which is
producing countless sparks and each spark has all the qualities of that fire
(light and heat). According to the Upanishads there are four inner senses : Man
,Aham, Buddhi and Citta .Respectively ;Mind Ego Intellect and Citta
.Citta is the subtlest part of nature the first projection of nature .Nature
has 3 attributes that's why citta has these 3 attributes too: Satoguna,
Rajoguna and Tamoguna..So Citta identifies itself with these three
qualities and can be of the types: Satwic Citta, Rajasik Citta and Tamsic
Citta.We read in the Upanishads; as an iron ball has the capacity and some
special qualities to receive fire -elements. If you will put an iron ball in
fire, after some minutes you will see, that there is no iron ball any more, but
there is a red mass only (fire ball). Because that iron ball has such kind of
potentiality to receive fire-elements so it looks like it turns into an iron
ball. In the same way the Citta has such a potentiality to adopt the quality of
the pure supreme consciousness .Maharishi Vyaasdev is giving an example of a
crystal ball; A crystal ball is receiving reflection of different colours ; If
you will put a read colour near to the crystal ball it will look red. So he
told that the citta has the same quality. It is pure in itself, but it adopts
the quality of the object put near to it. Citta is receiving divine Knowledge
and supremacy from Supreme Consciousness and it is receiving worldly impacts
too. Both are reflecting in the same Citta: worldly impacts and Divine Knowledge
.When the citta turns towards worldly affairs it becomes worldly and when it
turns to the divine, then it becomes Divine. The whole concept of philosophy is
moving around this ideology. First we should understand citta and
then its Vritti !
Aum sarwe bhawantu sukhinah sarwe santu niramaya, sarwe
bhadraani pashyantu, ma kaschit dukh bhaagbhawet. Aum shaanti shaanti shaanti
God bless you all. May He lead you from darkness to light, from unreal to real,
from death to immortality. May He shower upon you His divine grace, May He
bestow upon you His divine love and wisdom. Peace in the heaven, peace in the
space, peace on the earth. Aum Shaanti Shaanti Shaanti Aum .
the Lord showers his Divine grace on mankind, then he becomes eager to know
about the truth existing behind this natural phenomena. Such an aspirant tries
to search a proper teacher (guru) and learn that divine method, through which
he can realize that Ultimate Truth. That method is called yoga, which was
enunciated by Lord Hiranyagarbha. After him, this ideology was thought by many
seers at the end of the Dwaper-Yuga (3rd of the four yuga's) Lord Krishna
revised this method. After lord Krishna this method was philosophised by seer
maharishi Patanjali. Nowadays maharshi patanjali's yogadarshan is an authentic
book of yoga.There are many Upanishads in which seers have taught this higher
practise and method to their disciples. In my commentary on the sixth chapter
of the Bhagwad Gita I quoted all these seers and their ideas about this yoga
method .In the Mahabharata we find that many seers are teaching this method to
their own disciples and to the seekers of truth. These teachings in the
Mahabharata are very valuable .Patanjali's yogadarshan is very famous nowadays
It is a very authentic treatise upon yoga, or you can say that it is a
masterpiece on the subject yoga.
started to explain and teach you this philosophical treatise in detail. In the
first lecture I disclosed some ideologies about this yoga philosophy with some
historical facts. I have told you that the four aphorisms in the beginning of
this treatise are indicating the gist of this philosophy. The most famous work
of Patanjali are: Charak Samhita Patanjal Mahabhaasya Yoga Darshan As he starts
in his yoga Darshan with; Ath Yoganushasanam, identically he starts his
vyakaran Bhaasya with; Ath Shabdanushasanam.There also he stated that I am not enunciator
of this sound-philosophy. Our actions are related with three sources: Physical,
Mental and Vocal. King Bhartrihari indicated that the same Patanjali who wrote
Charak Samhita for physical health and Yoga Philosophy for Mental health, he
wrote the Mahabhaashye for sound. (Shaareerik ,Maansik and Vaachik)
body, mind and speech. If these three are polluted, impure and unstable, then
the three kinds of actions will be polluted and harmful. Bad sound or bad words
always create trouble .A polluted mind is the cause of suffering. An impure and
sick body is only painful. If one is suffering from diseases and is physically
not well, then he is living in hell on this earth. We are reading in holy
treatises that people are suffering in Narak (hell). If you want to see
this hell, you go to the hospitals...
maharishi Patanjali has given us is really appreciable and honourable. I don't
think that any other seer has given this perfect way of live which maharshi
Patanjali has taught us. Paanini has given us vyaakaran (grammar). Barruchi
gave shabdaanushaasanam. Patanjali has given us the complete method for the
well being for mankind... What is yoga? He said: Yogaschittwritti nirodha.
Retaining of modes of mind is called yoga.
to my own experience the modes of mind can't be retained. It can be modified or
channalized only. That's why he is explaining further the true meaning of
retaining the modes of mind He has told that retaining means Retain from
worldly affairs and turn to your source. Tatre sthito yatno abhyaas .
First he told: yoga is retaining the modes of mind. What will he gain if a
person becomes successful in this effort (in retaining the modes of mind). He
3: Samadhi Paad = tadaa drashtu swaroope awasthaanam , = Then the seer (drashtu) will be established in his own form /or true self .Drashtu means seer .
Because the seer is not established in his own self he is suffering. If he
establishes himself into his own form, then he will be free from suffering. He
is suffering because he has fallen down from his own place. In philosophical
language we say he has become chyut (fallen). The one who never falls is
called Achyut. Where has he fallen to? He has fallen from its real
consciousness to his body consciousness; the physical level, into worldly
affair; on the level of the senses .He has fallen into objects of senses.
Resultantly he is suffering. This is the cause of suffering. Kaaranam gun
sangasye sad asad yoni janmasu. (Lord Krishna stated. He is too attached
with worldly affairs, has sled down from his own state /place and is now
wandering with the modes of mind. There are 5 levels of consciousness. First he
becomes identified with the modes of Citta(intelligence consciousness ) . The
mode of Citta is called Wisdom .Then he is coming down to the
Ego-consciousness; Mind-consciousness; Sense- consciousness and in the end in
Body consciousness. Ego is appearing from intelligence consciousness (citta).
In the Upanishads there is no independent place for ego. There are 5 koshas (levels
of consciousness) respectively from higher to lower. 1. Anandmay kosha,
2.Vigyaanmay kosha, 3.Manomay kosha, 4.Praanmay kosha 5.Annamay kosha.
Sequently the seer is falling down from the higher levels of consciousness to
the lower realms and he becomes too attached with the body and worldly affairs.
If the seer establishes himself into citta or intellect then he will realize
his true form.
are some differences in both philosophies (yoga and samkhya ). I am teaching
yoga philosophy that's why I will not quote Samkhya, to avoid confusion .I have
written a commentary on the Bhagwad Gita in the light of Samkhya philosophy.
Readers may refer to my commentary. The bhagwadgita is based on the Samkhya
philosophy. Lord Krishna talked about the Samkhya shasrta many times in the
Bhagwat Gita.: Sankhyayogau prethakbalah pravadanti na panditah
Ekamapyasthitah samyagubhayorvindate phalam. Gita 5;4 Yat sankhyai
prapyate sthaanam yat yogairapi gamyate Ekam sankhyam cha yogam cha yah
pashyati sa pashayati Gita 5;5 Vyaasdew has written a commentary( bhashye
)on yoga philosophy and he entitled it as : Samkhya Pravachanam . It means that
the yoga system is based on Samkhya. Many seers wrote that Samkhya is the
theoretical aspect and yoga the practical aspect of the same philosophy. He
declared that by yoga you can realize that ultimate truth or the true nature of
purusha, which is explained by Sankhya.
have to be aware of; what is citta and what is writti. I have explained that
citta is the first manifestation of divine nature. Nature has three attributes
and being the first manifestation of nature Citta has three attributes too.
According to the theory of causation: You will find in the effect whatever is
existing in the cause. Effect is always living into its own cause. When effect
is appearing from its own cause then all the qualities which exist into the
cause you will find into its effect. This is called the theory of causation.
Citta is the first manifestation of Nature. Nature has three attributes:
Satoguna; Rajoguna and Tamoguna..So so the Citta has these three attributes
too. When citta becomes overpowered by Tamoguna..So then many kinds of
delusions appear and citta becomes infatuated. When Rajoguna prevails, then
confusion and doubt appear which are the results of Rajoguna. Pure knowledge is
the result of Satoguna. When Satoguna overpowers the citta then citta becomes
pure, calm, quiet and modeless. Modeless state of Citta is called nirudhCitta. From the two types of Samadhi this is the state of sampragyaatsamadhi. These three gunas exist there, but satoguna is prevailing or
overpowering. Rajoguna and tamoguna are present there, but they can not do
anything. Citta has two forms: cosmic citta and individual citta. Cosmic citta
is the citta of God and individual citta is the citta of the soul. But this
citta is really insentient ("jarh" in Sanskrit) . Nature
("prakriti" in sanskrit) is insentient so Citta is insentient,
being the product of nature. Purusha is sentient ("chetan"
in sanskrit). But when insentient citta becomes enlightened by sentient
Purusha, then it becomes sentient. But sentientness is not the quality of
citta. Maharishi Patanjali declared that citta has such kind of potentiality
that it can receive the qualities and properties of Supreme Spirit. As an iron
ball put in fire will look like a fire ball in a while. Iron ball doesn't have
its own quality any more it changes into a fire ball. In the same way citta can
catch and adopt the qualities of the Supreme Being. That quality or property of
the Supreme Being that has appeared into the citta,is called jiwaatma (individual
or jiwatma is the projection of Supreme Cause, but it is not separate
from the supreme cause. When fire appears in the form of an iron ball, in that
state also the fire is not separate from the all pervasive fire. All
pervasiveness of fire is existing in that state too when it looks like an iron
ball. In the same way when supreme spirit manifests or projects into the citta
in that state also "That" becomes one with supreme consciousness. It
looks individual and seperate, but it isn't separate. This great ideology you
will find in Samkhya as well in Vedanta. This is a unique search of our ancient
seers. This is the search of Truth. When citta becomes enlightened in the light
of supreme consciousness then citta looks sentient and 5 kinds of modes vrittis
appear in the citta. . Here Patanjaliji stated: when the modes of citta have
been retained, then the seer realizes his own true form and becomes one with
"That". He realizes that the citta is a projection of Nature, but
"I "am not a projection of nature. I am above citta and the master of
citta, not slave of it. Then he achieves his true nature. It is very hard to
retain the modes of mind. Patanjaliji will explain further that in common state
that seer becomes identified with the mind. When he becomes able to retain
modes of mind he realizes his own self and he become one with supreme spirit
and he is realizing his true nature, which is called sacchidanand (sat-chid-anand).
This state is called: moksha or,brahmnirvana . Patanjali entitled this
state as: kaiwalyam means one without a second. Tadaa drastu
swaroopeavasthaanam YD 1/3; Identified with supreme consciousness and
established in its cause. Vritti saroopyam itaratre YD 1/4; In a common
state the seer becomes identified with the modes of mind If he is unable to
retain the modes of mind and unable to establish himself into his true form, he
becomes identified with the citta. Citta is the manifestation of nature. This is
called "achiet". Chiet chieter na tritiyo. Shaandilye Sutra.
Maharishi Shandilya talks about: chitt and achitt ; here Chitt means supreme
brahman supreme consciousness and achitt means nature. Nature and spirit in
other words. Kaaranam guna sangoasye sadasad yoni janmasu .Gita 13/21
The modes of mind are threefold: satwic,raajasic and tamsic. He becomes
identified with these and suffering starts with the cycle of birth and death.
4: Samadhi Paad Vrittayah panchtayyah klishtaaklishtah Maharishi
Patanjali told us that we have kinds of modes of mind. These are divided in two
parts: klishtaa means painful and aklishta means not-painful.
Same modes become painful for one and not-painful for others. It is hard to
create a division, what is painful and what is not-painful for whom. The same
mode becomes painful and not painful. Modes are endless; based on these five,
but they have numerous forms. If any body can count the repulses on the ocean
then he can count the repulses of his citta too. As the repulses of the surface
of the ocean are uncountable in the same way the modes of mind are uncountable
too. So Vritayah panchtayah klishta-aklishtah means modes of mind are
five. He says: klieshtaaklieshta painful and not painful. He didn't say
that one is painful and the other is blissful. None of them are blissful. Aklieshtameans: not creating pain but not giving happiness. There isn't any mode of
mind, which gives you happiness and peace. Some are painful and some are not
painful (neutral). You are imagining many things. Your sankalpa and vikalpaare going on. Some are painful and some not painful. Karat manorath jas jiey
jaake, Tulsidaasji wrote. Manorath means: Imaginative, fancy ideas.
According to his own nature everybody is doing some imagination. The modes of
mind are 5 but their branches are uncountable. If you will try to control one
mode, another mode will come there. As putting fog into a weighing machine is
difficult, in the same way controlling the modes of citta is very hard. But people
are doing that practise. I have told you that retaining is very hard, but try
to channelize the modes towards Divinity.
God bless you all, may He lead you from darkness to light, from unreal to real;
from death to immortality. May He shower upon you His divine grace may He
bestow upon you His divine love and wisdom. Peace in the heaven, peace in the
space, peace on the earth. Aum Kham Brahm .
the grace of the Divine I am explaining; the cause, the form and the purpose of
yoga according to Maharishi Patanjali. Questions: - What yoga philosophy stands
for? Why man should follow the path of yoga? How one can practise this method?
What will the practitioner gain at the end of this process? These entire
questions are related with this subject. Not only with this subject, but with
every subject which is to be studied. The enunciator of any philosophy tries to
give proper answers to satisfy the seekers who are eager to tread on that path.
Maharishi Patanjali told that: yoga is the system through which one can retain
the modes of his mind. Uncontrolled emotion is the root cause of suffering.
There is no doubt about the fact that life is full with suffering. For a common
person there are very rare chances for being happy in human life. Everybody
knows that suffering is not the demand of anyone. Nobody wants to suffer. Not
only human beings, but all the beings want to be free from sufferings. Even a
little insect never wants to have pain .Suffering is undesirable for every
being, but suffering is the destiny of this world what we have to deal with.
The question is: Why? If a person can control his emotions, he can keep himself
away from that suffering. That emotion is the cause of desire .Desire always
creates frustration, dejection and restlessness in human mind: So how to
control these emotions? Be aware that emotion is a mode of mind. If a person
becomes able to retain the modes of mind, he can control his emotion. As I have
told you in the previous teaching that these modes of mind can't be retained.
It is impossible to retain them. They can be channelized. The best way to
channalize these emotions is; towards Divinity. Channelizing emotions towards
divinity will change into devotion Devotion is controlled emotion directed
towards divine power. That emotion is not related with worldly desires, but
related with Divinity .This is the only true achievable fact for mankind.
power can be achieved because it exists always. It is eternal and unchangeable
.But worldly objects are changing every moment, because change is the nature of
Nature .Nobody can stop that. Worldly desires can not be fulfilled by any
person. Desire for Divine can be fulfilled by everybody. A person is doing so
much of effort for achieving worldly things. If he would put half of the effort
for the achievement of the Divine he will achieve God. Unfortunately nobody is
eager to do that. The question again arise; Why? The reason is that worldly
objects are visible and divinity is not visible. It is beyond their vision. We
don't have deep faith in Divinity. Because the senses are turned and created
extrovert. The Veda declares: Paraanchi khaani vyatrinat svayambhu tasmaat
paraang pashyati na antaraatman Kaschit dheerah pratyagaatmaanam aikshat
aavritta chakshur- amrittatvam icchhan .Katho 2/1/1 The face of our senses
are extrovert. Whatever is outside can be seen by everyone, but nobody sees
what is inside. That divinity is very near to us. It is next to our ego or
intellect. That can be seen if one will turn the eyes from outside to the inner
world (introspection). As Veda declares : kaschit dhiraah pratyag aatmaanam
aikshat ,aavrittachakhsu,when a seeker divert his senses from outside and
turns them inside, then that Divine Power can be seen by him . Tulsidaas ji
wrote: Ati niyare sujhe nahi, dhig dhig aisi jidd. Tulsi yaa sansaar ko
,bhayo motiya bind . Ati niyare sujhe nahi, God is very near to us,
but we can't see Him. Really the Supreme power is very near to us, but we don't
I mentioned before that our intellect is enlightened by Supreme Consciousness.
Your real self is the projection of Supreme Consciousness .Nothing else can be
more near and dear to us, besides that Supreme Power, which is called Godhead.
God is always with us and our entity is existing due to Him. Nobody has a
separate entity from that Supreme Being. As the ray is always related with the
sun, in the same way the soul is related with its cause (Supreme Brahm),
because it is a projection of that Supreme Cause. Nothing is nearer to us then
that Supreme Power, but the Veda declares that our senses are turned outside
that's why we are not aware about that Truth .The modes of our mind are running
towards worldly affairs. If we can understand this truth and channelize the
modes towards the Divine, we will be great devotees. Devotion is the abode of
blissfulness. Jaate bhagati sakal sukh khaanie . Tulsidas Devotion is
the abode of happiness, while worldly desires are the causes of suffering.
Maharishi Patanjali claims: If one; wants to enjoy supremacy; wants to achieve
endless happiness and blissfulness, then he must divert his modes of mind and
channelize his emotions towards the Divine.
are five modes of mind and each mode has two qualities. Writtaya panchtayah
klishtaa aklishtaa. YD 1/5 each mode can be: undesirable or desirable 1.
klishtaa- hard /painfull/undesirable. 2. aklishtaa –soft / painless/
desirable . Pramaan Viparyaya Vikalpa Nidra Smritayah. YD 1/6 The 5
modes of mind are. 1. Pramaan 2.Viparyay 3.Vikalpa 4.Nidra5.Smriti. What is Pramaan? How many types of pramaans do we have?
The Sanskrit exploration for this is: Pramaa means intellect. The verbal
root of this word is;" Maa from the root maapne". "Pra"
prefix + maa (maapne-measurable) + kta =Pramaan (prakrishta roopen maapne) .
Perfectly measurement is called pramaan. We are measuring everything with our
intellect. There are two kinds of object in this world: visible and
perceptable. Perceptible means: whatever we can not see but understand with our
mind and visible means whatever we can see with our eyes .We are seeing earth,
fire water, but we can't see air. We can only feel that there is air .From the
five elements two are perceptible: air and ether and three are visible: earth
water and, fire. We can know about perceptible and visible objects in this
world only through our intellect. The intellect is measuring and giving
knowledge to us about everything.
question is; how the intellect can measure whatever is unknown to us and has
never been seen by us. The Intellect can measure an object and give us
information about the colour and form of that object. Because our intellect is
unaware about the name of that object so a new name has to be given to that
object. As nowadays scientists are creating new names for new discoveries. We
also create new names if we don't know the name of an object. Everything and
every substance can be measured by our intellect; due to that another name for
intellect is pramaa. Pramaa means intellect, budhi. Pramaan means; was measured
by the intellect. Our buddhi can measure anything in three ways. . I.e. 1. Pratyaksha
pramaan (cognitief knowledge) 2. Anumaan pramaan (inferential
knowledge) 3. Aagam pramaan. (written knowledge) Pratyakshaa Anumaan
Aagama Pramaanani; YD 1/7 Pratyaksh pramaan;aksha means eyes . In
philosophical language every sense is called "eye". Here: aksh"
is a technical term used to indicate active and cognitive senses. All your 10
senses (5 active and 5 cognitive). Everything what has to do with cognition is
called "eye". Our tongue can see by taste. Our skin can see by touch.
The nose can see by smell; ears can see by sound and our eyes can see the form.
Not only these cognitive senses, but our legs can see also. If there is some
water in a pond and you want to know how much water there is , you can know
that by walking or standing in it . You have seen (by your legs) how much water
there is in the pond. Hands are seeing too. For example: You take an object in
your hand and see how heavy it is. Every sense is related with our intellect
and is the projection of our intellect .Our intellect is working through these
senses. Cognitive senses are the projection and active senses are the
instruments of intellect .Senses are the interface of our intellect. The
measurement made by our intellect through the eyes is called pratyaksh pramaan.
Anumaan pramaan:Anumaan means inference ;anumaan pramaan means inferential
are three kinds of knowledge depending on the mode of measurement: = knowledge
achieved by senses called pratyaksh = knowledge achieved by inferring called
anumaan = knowledge achieved by scriptures and Guru called aagam or aapt
vaakyam. These three are the source of achieving knowledge and this pramaan
is the first mode of the mind. If your pramaa (intellect) is pure, then you can
achieve true knowledge. If your intellect is impure, you will gain false
knowledge. Viparyayo mithya gyaanam atadroop pratishtham. YD 1/8
Viparyay means reverse knowledge. These five are part of our intellect.
Pramaan, wiparyay wikalp nidra and smriti are the modes of intellect. Your
whole behaviour; physical, mental and vocal activities are related with your
intellect. So if you are controlling the modes of mind, then your intellect
will be pure. Pure intellect will be helpful on the path towards divinity. You
can achieve the highest good through a proper way (that way will be
aklieshta=desirable). But when that intellect becomes polluted, it will create
trouble and harm. Those who are doing mischievous, harfmfull work in society
and are acting against the social laws, they are also using their intellect .A
thief or a robber can not do his work without intellect .Whatever is desirable
or undesirable is related with the modes of chitta being pure or impure.
philosopher did not accept a separate existence of citta and buddhi. Yoga
philosopher accepts that the root is citta (first manifestation of nature) and
buddhi is a mode (Vritti) of citta. In the Upanishad we find another name for
citta called: mahattatwa. What is mahattatwa? According to;Samkhya philosophy
,mahattaytwa is buddhi . Yoga philosophy mahattatwa is chitta. Yoga philosopher
believes that the intellect is a mode of citta, which is called pramaan vritti
(pure intellect) of the citta .The five vrittis of citta : Pramaan writti means
pure intellect . Viparyay writti means impure intellect. Vikalp witti means
fancy intellect. Nidra writti means dull intellect. Smriti writti means aware
intellect. These modes of citta are nothing else than projections of our
intellect. If a person becomes able to control these modes then automatically
it will be clear and pure like a crystal and one can realize that ultimate
truth, which is reflecting into that citta. This is the purpose of yoga which
Patanjali is going to teach.
aware. This is not only a philosophy, but a practical science too. There is a
teaching in the Upanishad saying that you can imagine so many things, but you
can't see and gain those things in this life. But if you will practise yoga and
follow the method, you can see the effects of yoga in this life. There was a
king named Syumerashmie who was performing a yagya .Lord Kapil saw that went to
him and asked what he was doing. The king didn't reply. Then Lord Kapila asked
again: "What are you doing "? No reply. Then he asked once again the
same question. The king looked at Kapila and said:"don't you see what I am
doing"? Kapilji told: Yes, I am seeing what you are doing. A wise man must
not do any action without knowing the results of that action .You are a king.
You are a wise man. What result will you gain and what kind of purpose will be
fulfilled by this? Syumrashmi replied: I am doing ashwmedh - yagya. What
you will gain with this yagya Lord kapila asked? .I will achieve heaven the
king replied. Kapil asked: Where is heaven? Can you tell me? Nobody can tell
that. Why you are doing any work without knowing the results of it? The king
replied: scriptures declare that if you will do this yagya then you will
achieve heaven. Lord Kapila smiled and said; I don't believe in those actions
and scriptures which is bringing you on unknown paths. If one starts his
journey, he is to first decide where to go and then begins the journey. Why you
are treading this path, without knowing where this path will go? There was a
very long discussion between both. At the end Lord Kapila said: you are doing
this yagya since many years, have you gained anything? But I can teach you the
process of yoga and you can see the result in your present life. But you can't
show me the results of this yagya. Who knows if this yagya will lead you to
heaven or not? Why are you waisting your time and money. Hearing these words
from Kapilaji, the king was astonished. That king left his yagya and with
folded hands he approached to lord Kapila and requested: O great seer! Please
tell me who you are? He replied: my name is Kapila. Syumrashmi was stunned. Are
you Lord Kapila? How merciful you are my lord, it is my great fortune that you
yourself came to me. And he learned the process of yoga from Kapila.
is a practical science that gives its results in this life. Yoga is not only
the exercise of our intellect and mind. Now a days in every country people have
become eager to know about yoga, try to accept this method and way of life. I
have spent many years in Europe and America and have seen their eagerness yoga.
When you go to the Church and attend a service and you have a strong faith,
maybe it will give you mental satisfaction. People don't want to just believe
and have faith in God. Faith has no direction and without direction people
become confused. Yoga is giving direction. In India also, people are running toVaishno Devi, offering lots of money there. What are they gaining?
Nothing. Only mental satisfaction nothing else. My dear I was telling you that
this foolishness is everywhere. Mankind is suffering due to his own desire. If
he hears that there is a power that is fulfilling ones desire they run there.
Nowadays people are worshipping dead bodies ,which is called "Peer baba
".You will never find a person who is 9 meters tall. Naw gajaa peer',
9meter tall .But people are worshipping these dead bodies and expecting that
their desires will be fulfilled. Yoga is a practical science which can be
helpful for your upliftment and give you happiness in life. Today I have told
you what pramaan is .We will continue tomorrow.
God bless you all. May He lead you from darkness to light, from unreal to real,
from death to immortality. May He shower upon you His divine grace, May He
bestow upon you His divine love and wisdom. Peace in the heaven, peace in the
space, peace on the earth. Aum
Shaanti Shaanti Shaanti Aum .